Sacred and Profane Love

Sacred and Profane Love

Monday, 21 February 2011

The Sacred and the Profane: Finding the way in: Poetic Imagery of Donne and Giorgione.


"The aim of art is to embody the secret essence of things, 
                                                            not to copy their appearance."                                                                                                                      Aristotle



As an undergraduate of fine art, the image of the Sacred and Profane Love was presented to me as a masterpiece of the art world, and yet the 'meaning' of this work has eluded any convincing interpretation for almost five hundred years. This painting then presents something of a problem in this post-modern and perhaps more pertinently, post-conceptual environment of contemporary art practice. On exactly what basis should a Renaissance painting be considered a work of art? Does the term art as a descriptive refer to a virtuosic masterpiece of antique painting - or is it actually 'art' in contemporary terms of conceptual intent? Social inscription is applied to the piece through the process of discussing its history by an institutionalised historiocracy, but it still may not be art, for if it be the latter, it must be, as Oscar said, both "surface and symbol" and that social agreement cannot solely rely on the considerations of age or historical context. That craftsmanship or virtuosity must be self evident and readily apparent is clear, but a work must also project its own deliberate, intentional argument contained within the complexities of visual language. 



                    "Wherever I go I find that a poet has been there before me" 

                                                                                                 Sigmund Freud.

A quick glance at the various interpretations of the Sacred and Profane Love yields little of any significant value so perhaps it is time to depart from the futile practice of interpreting the interpreters. The language of art is the work itself and must remain a resolved work of the executive ego. This cannot be inscribed (added to) beyond the final presentation. The exception to this can be found in examples of antique art that employ complex geometric origins as the foundation of an image in much the same manner as the skeleton of any creature will describe a general approximation of form. As a type of foundation geometry was historically used as the departure point for an idea or concept.

If this painting is a deliberately self referencing artwork, it should come as no surprise to find that any possibility of a proposition which the painting may dignify should be no less elegant than the painted image that would articulate it.

Duality is made obvious in the Sacred and Profane Love by the presence of two women at the fountain - a 'terrestrial' Venus, and a 'celestial' Venus - postulated around 1930 as a theory of content by Erwin Panofsky. It is that theory to which the Galleria Borghese in Rome - which houses the Sacred and Profane Love - is most sympathetic.

This analysis will eventually declare the Sacred and Profane Love a collaboration between a humanist and perhaps as many as three visual artists synthesising and reinterpreting peculiar ontological touchstones of religious and cultural heritage. The painting is actually designed around a geometric and symbolic programme (invenzione) that is most likely been designed by a humanist. While the demands of the humanist might institute certain boundaries, the artists capacity to posit seemingly disparate ideas and resolve them as non-textual conceptual schema is in evidence. To discuss this coherently, layers of meaning and metaphor must be carefully analysed which will, in this essay, indicate the archetype of the feminine in abstraction.



                                   
In an attempt to navigate through the polarites of notions both Sacred and Profane, this essay will use excerpts taken from the erotic poetry of a married Renaissance Priest (Donne) contrasting those insights with Giorgione's Dresden (or Sleeping Venus) and the (Giorgionesque) collaboration now known as the Sacred and Profane Love.

 John Donne (1572 -1631) 
Funeral effigy: St Paul's Cathedral, London.


John Donne (1572-1631), author of Elegy XX: TO HIS MISTRESS GOING TO BED describes the allure of the feminine through an idealised type of nature; a pastoral bounty often associated with the personifications of Venus.

Donne never impolitely reveals his wife's person or personal form beyond the fashion of metaphor so that '...the eyes of busy fools may be stopp'd there' - and only then through the immersion of the personal into a conceptual eroticism:

                                       Off with that girdle, like heaven's zone glittering,
                                       But a far fairer world encompassing.
                                       Unpin that spangled breast-plate, which you wear,
                                       That the eyes of busy fools may be stopp'd there.


The girdle of Venus - named cestus or zone - bestowed upon the wearer an irresistibility over men (note the belt worn by the clothed female of the Sacred and Profane Love). Donne's spangled breast-plate refers to the starry sky in its physical, jewelled glory and Venus, the jewel wandering among the stars, is seen as a beautiful remote object long before the influence is understood:


                                       Gems which you women use
                                       Are like Atlanta's ball cast in men's views ;
                                       That, when a fool's eye lighteth on a gem,
                                       His earthly soul might court that, not them.


These themes of Donne's are relevant to the Sacred and Profane Love as in either case it is the idea of an exalted eroticism that becomes the vehicle of transformation. Painting and poem share alchemical parallels in that each employs the 'dross of sex' and then turns it into the 'gold' of the philosophical alchemist; the Profane becomes the Sacred, ie; sanctified.

Armed with the knowledge of the Athanor - the Bath of Mary (Bain Marie) and yoni), the psychophysical transformation occurs within the wedding chamber. Donne alludes to this wedding chamber, the site of the 'mystic wedding' - the hieros gamos:

                            Off with your hose and shoes ; then softly tread,
                               In this love's hallow'd temple, this soft bed.


                                                     
                                                              



One of the most critical oversights in past interpretations of the Sacred and Profane Love has been the failure to interpret the sarcophagus/fountain as Athanor, the matrix of the philosophical Alchemist. According to the writings of the occultist Eliphas Levi the proportions of this Athanor can be described by the pentagram. Some four hundred years after the Sacred and Profane Love was executed, Levi would write:

                                   " By the pentagram also is measured the exact
                                    proportions of the great and  unique Athanor
                                   necessary to the confection of the Philosophical
                                   Stone and the accomplishment of the Great Work."


One of the major keys to unlocking the mystery of the Sacred and Profane Love is the Athanor, the sarcophagus/fountain whose proportions are measured by the upright pentacle and the inverted pentagram.




In the image above a circle has been declared thereby forming a pentacle, and within that pentacle can be formed an inverted pentagram. (A pentacle is a five pointed star bound by the proportions of a circle. When not bounded by a circle, the five-pointed star is called a pentagram.) To discover how to precisely determine the specific dimensions of the circles boundary (and thereafter the proportions of the pentacle) within the Sacred and Profane Love's structure see The Zodiacal Metaphors on this site. 

Quickly, the only two horizontal lines found in the upright and inverted pentagrams prescribe the upper and lower boundaries of the sarcophagus/fountain. It must be noted that the inverted pentagram invites the 'downward' action and declares the fountain (the fountain Cyane) to be the entrance to the underworld realm of Pluto (actually this earthly realm) and so describes the 'fall'. This descent into matter is, according to philosophical alchemy, sexual in nature, as is also implied by the Christian events of the Garden of Eden. 

The matrix of all philosophical alchemy is the Athanor; the sanctum sanctorum of the Great Work - and the yoni - which are at once both profane and sacred. Return to Eden and slice Eve's stolen apple through the equator or 'girdle' and note the fruits geometric form at the core.


The gift to Adam from the 'tree of the knowledge of good and evil' is the sign of the pentagram, or better, the esoteric and geometric mysteries of the pentagram.* The pentagram is sacred to Venus on this basis: At the conclusion of every eight years, the planet Venus, when aligned with the earth, describes a pentagram in the heavens.  

 No other planet achieves anything remotely similar in riposte to this beautiful accident.



An earthly personification of the 'terrestrial Venus' is equitable to the physical, and therefore legitimately sexual in nature, fertile and regenerative - something Giorgione's Sleeping Venus c.1508, achieved around ninety years before Donne's poem had been penned, and for which Giorgione's Venus is arguably most famous. Under Giorgione's hand, the boudoir is natures garden, and the hallow'd temple is found under natures canopy of clouds.


Giorgione. Sleeping Venus. c.1508
                                    Your gown going off such beauteous state reveals,
                                    as when from flowery meads th' hill's shadow steals.

Donne and Giorgione - one textually, the other  pictorially - sensuously compare the feminine (flowery meads) and Her form  to the gentle undulations of the landscape.

In Giorgione's painting a naked sleeping Venus is supported on plush red cushions and reclined upon an generous silvery white fabric in a landscape setting. Donne:

                                               ...cast all, yea, this white linen hence ;
                                                There is no penance due to innocence:


And rightly so. 




                                                            
                                                                                     
Because the two women at the fountain of the Sacred and Profane Love correspond to dualistic feminine archetypes, the identity of the two women are interchangeable with other dualistic feminine religious mythologies.

For example, Eve and Mary are equitable to the 'terrestrial Venus' and the 'celestial Venus' respectively and/or the profane and the sacred - one the 'fallen' woman, the other the celestial virgin. Growing up in a Roman Catholic household Donne must have been aware of the religious and exclusively Italian lineage of the Great Mother cults of Rome; of Venus as well as Mary.

As a former Catholic and later Dean of St. Paul's in London, Donne's early erotic work may have pushed the boundaries of Christian propriety, but there is always a sense of the humanist (in a contemporary sense) about Donne - as is also found in the observations of Giorgione.




The woodcut above, taken from the Renaissance novel the Hypnerotomachia Poliphili (c.1499), is arguably the source and inspiration behind Giorgione's Sleeping Venus. Although Giorgione's Sleeping Venus is well advanced from the rustic vulgarity of the Hypnerotomachia woodcut, in reality Giorgione has not raised himself beyond the level of the satyr (portrayed in erecto facino) and actually returns to inhabit the role of the satyr as a (now invisible) ogling male.

The (equally invisible) patron/viewer (most likely male) will empathise with and as this invisible masculine God. This is what Giorgione (the young man) achieves in the Sleeping Venus; the artist - the initial perpetrator of the gaze is hidden - veiled behind his vision and virtuosity. He has removed the objectified ego (the satyr of the Hypnerotomachia woodcut) and commits to the gaze in the first person, thereafter this direct experience is passed vicariously to the viewer. In a vulgar sense this could be interpreted as a psychological version of Filippo Brunelleschi's (1377-1446) 1425 experiment in geometric perspective. Giorgione has located a 'hole in the Baptistery door' and is inviting the viewer to participate in this subtle act of voyeurism.

In the Sleeping Venus Giorgione's maturity has not yet arrived and he is paying a libidinous homage with youths eye for the voluptuous and the sensual - the voyeur - and as such suggests an immature solitary stage of psychosexual development. Donne, the refined married man clearly has the advantage, and his experience speaks of the consensual and elevated delights of conjugal bliss. The progression and ultimate fulfilment which Giorgione will later attain will be made clear through the conceptual sophistication found in the Sacred and Profane Love. 


[In light of the Sacred and Profane Love's cosmological programme and the central importance of the inverted pentacle, one would be inclined to stress that the Sacred and Profane Love is in fact equally dedicated to Pluto as the Deus absconditas (the hidden God) as much as it is obviously dedicated to the feminine. The name Aidoneos or Aides relates to this God as ‘the invisible’. (Aidoneos = Aides from where the name Haides = Hades originates.) The pervasive invisibility of Pluto is articulated as the hidden geometric presence of the inverted pentagram, and so develops the masculine balance between two the women of the Sacred and Profane Love.] 








Again, Donne's sensitive erotica does not exploit the person of the wife, as the feminine in his sensual context refers only to the Goddess. Similarly, the Sacred and Profane Love invites a critical reading of the apparent luxury of  indulgence where the opulent dress of the 'terrestial Venus' is contrasted to the simplicity of the pure. All three works participate in the dichotomy of balance and of challenging the sexual motive as a path to elevation, and the development of conceptual mind. 


The feminine effusion - as developed in Donne's poem (Elegy XX) and the Sacred and Profane Love is portrayed as a fugitive force with dual aspects coursing between the physical and spiritual; from the soberingly erotic to the conceptual dissolution of self and selves; the duality of the profane and the sacred.

In the context of Giorgione and Donne's poetics, perhaps the abstract term nearest to the feminine sensual force personified as a Goddess is Shekhinah, which has been described as '...a revelation of the holy in the midst of the profane...'.
How am I blest in thus discovering thee ! 
To enter in these bonds, is to be free

Conceptualising the works of both artists in a contemporaneous present, Donne the wordsmith is in step with the sensuality of the Giorgione painting, and equally (though less obviously) the visual poetry of the Sacred and Profane Love.

It can be concluded that the Sacred and Profane Love - considered as an extension and progression in the oeuvre of Giorgione - is also dedicated to Venus (or Venuses) in all the forms and computations that could be ascribed to her given the boundaries of context within the intended allegorical narratives of Donne's poetry and Giorgione's paintings.


                                    
In art, images of the feminine are so often the attempt to capture an ideal of type most appropriate to describe the voltage of a fugitive force which is ultimately veiled by an equally fleeting glamour. Here, those words attributed to Horace** (65-27 BCE) are most fitting:


'Pulchritudo est aliquid incorporeum...'



500 Years of Female Portraits in Western Art
(video by Philip Scott Johnson)



It is perhaps trivial that the exterior form alone of the Sacred and Profane Love has preserved it through the ages rather than its complexity in totality. Yet to deny apprehension and intuition when facing the unknown would be to deny art - and only art - the lightening flashes of an encompassing comprehension; an experience which belongs to the human condition, and therefore defines and contributes to deeper notions of what it is to be one of us.





* The Tree of the Knowledge of Good and Evil portrayed allegorically in the Bible (Genesis 2: 16-17) relates to the eating of animal life. 'Evil is knowing better but willingly doing worse.' - states Phillip Zimbardo. So the loss of a vegetative Eden and the rise of acceptable butchery - both animal and human. This psychological expulsion from a vegetative paradise reveals a form of 'cognitive dissonance' on a global scale in regards human relationship to (rather than 'with') all other forms life: a form of species justified cannibalism which defines the loss of the Biblically described pathocentric paradise. The Tree of Life refers to human life both microcosmic and macrocosmic.


**This sentence caught my attention over twenty years ago, I believe the attribution to Horace is correct, but the source is lost.

All themes, writings, and opinions are copyright Paul Doughton 1996-2016 and may not be used in any form without written permission of the author.


 pAuL.